Imperial Crown Of Charlemagne

In being relatively well recorded, the expansion of the “Holy Roman Empire” during the latter years of the first millennium represents an intriguing topic for academic research, however, as a result of the interest’s sprawling constitutional structure, different accounts of it’s exact dimensions yet present grounds for a degree of speculative conjecture.

The explanation for such ambiguity is, in this instance observed to be that the Empire was, in having initially been based upon the East coast of England, compelled for some reason to emigrate into Northern Europe during the fourth century Anno Domini, an evacuation which, in coinciding with an extensive Saxon population upon arrival, was frequently perceived to be synonymous with Germany .

As one would imagine the influx of Roman culture into Europe at this time would, in averring affinity with men of Saxon stock, presume a number of cultural distinctions, a term beneath which the empire was notably observed to preserve Latin script over a variety of comparable Germanic dialects.

It was in this instance undeniably true that towns like “Chichester”, “Rochester”, “Colchester” and “York” upon the East coast of England were, during the earliest years of the first millennium, constructed by men of Roman pedigree and equally true that, when this process of construction stopped as a result of the empire’s emigration from England, Latin culture began to saturate Northern Europe.

Whether or not such a trend found it’s way into Italy at this date remains a matter of conjecture, much of the Holy Land was observed to have spoken Hebrew through until the medieval era when a steady influx of pilgrims presumably compelled it to adopt a Latin standard in an appreciable sense.

In efforts to explain the general circumstance of such an eventuality, I was ultimately driven to defer orthodox dictum in favor of a number of accounts recanted by writers of Norse stock during the early first millennium, men who, in describing the countries of central Europe before the incident of Roman colonization, could offer a unique insight into both a regional geography and a time scheme about which I felt very little was known.

Within such testimonies, the Nordic bronze age was observed to have come to an end in approximately 650 B.C. a period after which a freak weather condition known as the “Fimbulwinter” was witnessed to occur, a circumstance that in assailing the earth with fierce blizzards which were noted to blow snow in every direction, continued uninterrupted by summer for a prolonged period of time.

Retrospectively perceived in the “Poetic Edda” of the thirteenth century to herald an event known as “Ragnarok”, a period during which all life on earth was called to an end, the “Fimbulwinter” was, alongside witnessing extreme inclemency, observed to have been distinguished by the occurrence of innumerable wars, a coincidence which one can only suppose would serve to complete the event’s thrall over terrestrial event.

Latterly deemed to be a reflection upon the events of the eighth century, a term beneath which speculation devoted to both “Ragnarok” and the “Fimbulwinter” were observed to neatly correspond with in the decision to draft of a number of gospels containing the apocalyptic revelations of St John within their catalog by the ecclesiastical authorities of Europe, Norse accounts of the end of the world are nonetheless thoroughly compelling and retain a cultural apparel unique to themselves.

Depicted in the “Poetic Edda” as a prophecy rather than a retrospective, a prediction recanted by a variety of Scandinavian witch known as a “Volva”, the “Fimbulwinter” was, in circumstancing both hardship and conflict, described to be a time within which men were, in being driven to forsake mercy, witnessed to vie for advantage with each other, compounding the incident of conflict that presumably served to inspire them.

The event of such suffering was then observed to be a portent which drove the Norse divinity “Odin” to seek the assistance of a seer named “Vafpruonir”, a liason through which the God was, in being told that the end of the world was imminent, noted to inquire who would survive, a question to which the seer was pessimistically witnessed to respond, “Lif and Lifbrasir in the forest of Hoddminns holt ”, an answer which abstractly served to inform the deity of his own demise.

The “Volva” then proceeded to explain in graphic terms how “Ygasdril” the Norse “World tree” shook and spurned a thrashing serpent from it’s bowels, a circumstance that was observed to occur as eagles shrieked and wolves howled against the sky in symphonies of mutual despair, an instance in which, a wolf named “Fenrir” was driven to consume the Norse God “Odin”, who, in accordance with legend, remained obstinately irreclaimable within the beasts’s stomach despite persistent efforts made by other Gods to extricate his body.

Odin’s” demise was then witnessed to preclude a descent through chaos in which the sun turned black and the earth began to sink into the sea, a process which emitted a cloud of steam that rose to touch heaven as terrestrial subsidence slowly claimed vintage.

As this occurred, a mythical warrior named “Surtr”was witnessed to advance from the South brandishing a sword that, in being brighter than the sun, blinded all who gazed upon it, a moment in which the extended pantheon of Norse gods including “Odin”, “Thor”, “Tyr”, “Freyr”, “Heimdalir” and “Loki” were, after having lived as immortals, ultimately witnessed to die.

After this event had occurred the “Volva” was then noted to recapitulate, observing that the earth was rendered fertile once again, a term beneath which it was, in accordance with convention, re-populated by two individuals named “Baldr” and “Hoor” who proceeded to find the golden game pieces of the Gods lying abandoned about it’s expanse in the wake of the catclysm.

In 43 Anno Domini, sometime after such events had hypothetically occurred, unless, as was probable, the Norse had dramatically miscalculated the date at which Ragnarok occurred, the Roman navy beneath the command of the emperor “Claudius” was recorded to have landed at “Richborough” in Kent, an event which, in heralding the establishment of a number of small ports along the South east coast of England, was noted to have been responsible for the erection of the first incarnation of London Bridge within the Thames estuary in 55 Anno Domini.

Assailed upon arrival by the “Icene” tribe, an interest that, in initially accepting Roman presence upon the English mainland, subsequently rallied against it’s designs beneath the initiative of the Pagan queen “Boudicca”, many Southern ports were observed to have fallen out of use by the end of the third century, a period during which the city of “York” upon the banks of the river “Ouse” was, after having defeated the Northern queen “Cartimandua” in 71 Anno Domini, notably selected by Rome as the English capital, a distinction through which the city was, in being named “Eboracum”, witnessed to have served as a wool trading center protected by both a number of forts and an impressive defensive wall.

Despite such fortification “York” was, in having played host to the emperors “Hadrian”, “Septimus Severinus” and “Constantine the first”, recorded to have been devastated by a warlord named “Alaric the Vizigoth” in 401 Anno Domini, an event which, in ultimately leading to the city’s abandonment, was eventually to herald the departure of Roman presence from England.

Occupied by the “Angles” throughout the remainder of the fifth century, a period during which a number of Western Germanic tribes were, in colonizing “North Albion” on the Rhine, coincidentally observed to have been Christianised through association with the religious conversion of the Merovingian king “Clovis the first”, “York” was, during the mid seventh century, recorded to have been the site of both “Bamburgh castle” and the religious center of “Lindisfarne Abbey” a community of monks that, in gaining renown for drafting a number of biblically inspired enlightened manuscripts, was instrumental in founding both the “Cathedral School of York” and “St. Peter’s School” during the seventh century.

Known as the kingdom of “Diera” throughout this time, an interest which, in merging with the neighboring province of “Bernicia” was subsequently to bear the title the “Kingdom of Northumbria”, “York” was, in being recorded to have become associated the “Brigantes” tribe during the seventh century, ultimately to assist in the expansion of the Northern city of “Vindolanda”.

Observed to have been a Bishopric in 735 Anno Domini, “York” subsequently became affiliated with the Holy Roman Empire, an anomaly explained through coincidence with an increased incident of naval travel between England and Scandinavia.

As a result of such correspondence and the impact that it was observed to have upon the English, I decided to undertake a little research into the sequence of events which were to draw the city into collusion with Europe.

During the late seventh century a French mayor of the palace named “Pepin Herstal” was recorded to have defeated a man named “Theoderic” at the battle of “Tertry”, a victory which, in granting the “Arnulfing” clan to which “Pepin” belonged sovereignty over the provinces of both “Austrasia” and “Neustria” in Europe, immediately represented the basis one of the most extensive kingdoms of it’s day.

At approximately the same time that this event was occurring the “Vizigothic” kings which had succeeded in uniting “Hispania” during the early first millennium were observed to fall prey to the attentions of Saracen invaders, a circumstance that, in itself witnessing dispute, began to infringe upon the provincial interests of “Odo the Great of Aquitaine”, an individual who, in being defeated by an Emir named “Abd Al Rhamad Al Ghafiqui” at the battle of “Garonne”, was witnessed to have sought the aid of “Pepin’s” son “Charles Martel” to assist his cause.

Subsequently performing a lightning march upon the town of “Tours”, “Charles Martel” was, in this instance, observed to both defeat the Emir in open battle and thenceforth to repel a number of Moorish reprisals waged against him in the wake of his victory, a circumstance beneath which, by process of repeated intercession, “Odo’s” control over “Aquitania” was ultimately itself challenged by French military stridency.

Charles Martel” was, in this instance, thenceforth witnessed to have achieved almost complete dominion over Europe, a term beneath which he was noted to have retained the Frankish monarchy in efforts to prevent the fragmentation of the vast “Merovingian” empire, a body of men that, at this time, was observed to have represented a unifying influence.

Subsequently retracting the Frankish monarchy’s right to rule, “Charles Martel” proceeded to falsify the “Merovingian’s” premium in favor of his own legitimacy, an assertion that, in being disputed by “Odo”, subsequently led to an argument in which the soldier was depicted to be nothing more than the illegitimate son of a redoubtable individual named “Charles the Hammer”.

Despite such prevarication, “Charles Martel” was, within a matter of months ultimately ordained as the king of France, a circumstance which in spelling the end of the Merovingian monarchy, witnessed the beginning of an extended “Carolingian” right of succession .

Some time after this event “Odo’s” son “Hunald the first” was recorded to have both blinded and imprisoned his brother in efforts to become the solitary inheritor of his father’s land, an act which, in later betokening the boy’s remorse, ultimately resulted in his consignment to a monastery, a location in which he yet produced an heir named “Waifer”.

As “Hunald’s” influence in “Aquitania” dwindled “Waifer” was thenceforth witnessed to have been exploited by “Charles Martel’s” son, “Carolus”, a man who, in an act of calculated opportunism both hunted the young heir down and assumed almost complete control over his preserves, an acquisition which he later legitimized by marrying a Lombard princess named “Desiderata”.

Subsequently recognized as the ruler of “Aquitaine”, “Carolus” thenceforth proceeded to accrue a number of similar distinctions, a term beneath which he was ultimately observed to have held the office of “King of the Lombards”, “King of the Salian Franks”, and “Holy Roman Emperor”, a pretext beneath which he duly adopted the name “Charlemagne” to emphasize his mastery over Roman affairs.

The nature of “Carolus’” success in this instance was observed at least initially to have arisen from a particularly ruthless military attitude, a policy which, in subduing at least two major insurrections, was notably witnessed to have demanded the conversion of at least 4,500 Saxons to the Christian faith upon pain of death during the “Massacre of Verden” in 782 Anno Domini.

Despite attesting what would presumably have represented a formidable military reputation “Carolus” was paradoxically also known to have admired the writings of “St.Augustine”, a pretext beneath which the emperor was known to have both accumulated an extensive personal library and taught elementary Latin.

Subsequently establishing a Royal lending library which, in possessing a catalog of books chained down for reference purposes, was also noted to have contained a number of texts that could be both borrowed and returned by members of his court, “Carolus” was, perhaps to a greater extent than any monarch of his era, responsible for leaving a extensive written record of his existence.

Primarily devoted to the preservation of books devoted to the study of Christian Doctrine, the emperor’s support of literary endeavor was ultimately witnessed to have drawn “Carolus” into personal acquaintance with an English scribe named “Alcuin of York”, an individual who, in keeping with convention, was observed to have amused him with a selection of witty literary puzzles.

Perhaps as a result of “Carolus’” literary interest most of “Aquitania” was, during the eight century, witnessed to have adopted a variety of French infused middle English known as “Romance” as it’s language, a mode of communication which, in being used to furnish the first millennial epic poem the “Karlamagnus Saga” with detail, was notably also later adopted by writers who wished to create work of a similar persuasion during the medieval era.

The “Karlamagnus Saga”, was, in this instance, observed to have been a series of medieval romances recanting the adventures of “Carolus’” nephew “Roland A Saragosa” in Muslim Spain, a man who, in being equipped with both a sword known as “Durendal” and a horse named “Veillant of Oliphant”, was depicted as one of France’s “nine worthies”, a body of men who, in being led by an emperor with a flowing beard, were analogous to King Arthur’s knights of the round table.

Legendarily assisted by twelve “Paladins” to stage a campaign against a Spanish giant that, in having found occasion to inhabit “ Roncevaux Pass” in Catalonia, was reputed to ambush travelers by hurling rocks from the cliffs which overshadowed the ravine’s length, “Roland” was, although valiant, tragically observed to have died during his mission, a term beneath which he subsequently came to represent the plight of every Christian martyr placed before the unsavory attention of heathen interests.

Appearing alongside a catalog of both dragons and monsters that were, in many ways observed to reflect the unwholesome attributes of the Muslim hordes, “Roland” later re-appeared surrounded by “Troubadors” in a number of poems drafted during the medieval era, a body of work which, in being collectively known as “Les Chansons De Geste”, was notable for introducing two Saracens named “Fierbras” and “Otinel” into their scheme, men who, in being sworn to defy the French monarchy, were respectively observed to embody the obstinacy of the infidel during the “Albigensian Crusades” of the twelfth century.

Recorded to have been buried at “Aachen” in 814 Anno Domini, “Carolus” was, in being the first Roman to rule Europe since the fifth century, generally considered to be the root from whom all subsequent emperors claimed descent, a term which, although disputed by the “Russian Orthodox church”, which limited the monarch’s status to “Irene of Athenes”, was nonetheless carried forth by the king’s daughter “Rotrude”who, in marring “Constantine the sixth of Byzantium”, was observed to have been succeeded by “Louis the Pious of Germany”, a ruler who, in drafting the Treaty of Verden” to appease a sense of underlying resent towards his grandfather’s atrocities, attempted to sustain many of the values for which the empire had achieved renown.

Although “Louis’” efforts, in this instance, were undoubtedly earnest, the empire was nonetheless subsequently observed to have collapsed, spewing forth a multitude of minor kings who, in respectively electing a knight from their bowels, resulted in the disempowerment of “Carolus’” immediate family by the end of the ninth century, an event which, in heralding a state of civil unrest, compelled “Berengar the first of Italy” to sustain a “Carolingian” apparel in a nominal capacity through into the tenth century.

Although the Carolingian era was, with the abdication of “Berengar” theoretically at an end, the German branch of “Carolus’” empire yet retained a degree of cohesion, a term beneath which “Otto the first” was, in 962 Anno Domini, observed to have revived many of it’s honors, endowing a contingent of German Prince Electors with the title “King of the Romans” pending subsequent elevation to the rank of emperor by the Pope.

Retrospectively observed to have been “an agglomeration of interests which, in being called the Holy Roman Empire were neither holy, roman or an empire”, by the French philosopher “Voltaire”, the antique qualities of the German empire were noted to have been consciously accentuated by “Frederick Barbarossa”, who, although dying on an ill fated crusade into the kingdom of “Cillicia” during the twelfth century, was observed to have assisted in Germany’s acquisition of Bohemia, Burgundy and Italy on behalf of the empire, a right which, in comparing favorably against that of “Carolus”, was witnessed to have remained undissolved through until the nineteenth century.

Although initially perceived to be a Roman convention, the practice of staging naval expeditions between Europe and England was, throughout the last years of the Carolingian regime, also observed to have been embraced by the Danes, a period during which a succession of Viking raids upon the British mainland proceeded to forge swathe across the extent of England’s East coast.

Heralded by the advance of a particularly brutal warlord named “Ivar the Boneless” who proceeded to demolish the city of “Eboracum’s” walls and replace them with an earth mound surmounted by pointed stakes, an instance in which the location was, in being forced to accept “the Danelaw”, duly re-named “Jorvik”, a title which was later notably adapted to “York”, the city’s present name.

Deterred with an extensive network of dams constructed by “King Alfred of Wessex” during the ninth century, a repulsion later echoed by the banishment of a warrior named “Eric Bloodaxe” by Alfred’s grandson “King Eadred”, Vikings nonetheless succeeded in establishing a number of permanent strongholds upon the English mainland, an instance in which Danish households were noted to have been maintained by “Huscarles”, a body of men divided between “Thralls” who were effectively slaves, “Lithsmen” who represented a civilian peasantry conditioned to perform domestic duties and “Butsecarls”, who were paid body guards that, in being armed with axes were renowned for wearing the peculiar nasal helmets which subsequently served to distinguish Viking culture.

King Canute” of Sussex was, in this instance, observed to have maintained a household of between three and four thousand “Huscarles”, a convention which in, similarly being practiced by his wife beneath the reign of “Edward the Confessor”, was noted to have been continued into the fourteenth century when Denmark’s forfeiture of England resulted in the fragmentation of such interests.

Recorded to have migrated into England from both Iceland and Scandinavia, the Viking invasion of England was, in being mentioned in the “Domesday Book”, noted to have coincided with a pronounced Anglo-Saxons presence in Britain, a precedent beneath which the Anglo Saxon king “Harold Godwinson” was incidentally noted to have been defeated by “Harold Hadrada” the king of Norway during the eleventh century, an event which, in leading to “Godwinson’s”attempt to reclaim province at “Stamford Bridge”, ultimately led to his death at the hands of “William the Conqueror” during “the Battle of Hastings”.

William was, in this instance, subsequently observed to quell a number of rebellions in “York”, a campaign which, in being known as “the harrying of the North” ultimately witnessed the extensive destruction of Saxon property between the city and the neighboring town of “Durham” by a contingent of armed knights, a circumstance beneath which 100,000 people were observed to have been killed.

Recorded to have constructed both a Minster and a fortress on “Baille Hill” in York during his campaign, a feature later augmented with the erection of a cathedral in the city by a man named “Archbishop Thomas”, William’s men were, in keeping with their reputation, subsequently observed to have spurned the town’s Jewish population, a policy which, in being carried forth into the twelfth century, was witnessed to have resulted in the massacre of at least 150 men within the city in 1190.

Perceived to be an instance in which public sentiment was driven to discriminate against ethnic distinction, the aforementioned massacre was, in this instance, noted to have been caused by a mob of demonstrators who, upon driving the city’s Semitic population to seek shelter in “CliffordsTower”, a wooden precursor to “York Castle”, decided to incinerate the building’s infrastructure, killing anyone who attempted to escape it’s confines.

Subsequently achieving renown as an execution site, a purpose which it fulfilled through until 1896 “York Castle”, was, in being synonymous with the growth of the city as a depot for French cloth, canvas, and wax beneath the charter of “King John”, later augmented with a pallisade constituted from four fortified walls which, in respectively being known as “Bootham Bar”, “Walmgate Bar”, “Monksate Bar” and “Micklesgate Bar”, served to display a catalog of heads removed from people hung at “Knavesmire Gallows”.

Frequently referred to as “Tyburn” in homage to a similar execution site within the city of London “Knavesmire Gallows”, was notably distinguished by a collapsible triangular podium known as “the three legged man”, a pedestal which, in serving as a trap, fell away beneath the feet of those sentenced to death.

Recorded to have employed the noose to asphyxiate convicts before finalizing it’s mandate by both decapitating such men on a pavement with an axe and disemboweling their bodies, “Knavesmire gallows” was, in many respects, observed to represent a figurative surety of death.

It was interesting to observe in this instance that, where men were recorded to have been drawn by horses through York before being throttled and disemboweled, a practice which was subsequently to achieve infamy as “hanging, drawing and quartering”, women were burnt at the stake, a distinction through which individuals of either sex were, for some reason, deemed to demand different fates.

Furnished with a peculiarly gambrelled array of roof tiles, an arrangement which served to project an extensive collection of heads forth over surrounding preserves, “Micklesgate Bar” was, in representing the Westerly entrance to “York”, recorded to have proceeded it’s activities with the execution of a welsh nobleman named “Rhys Ap Maredudd” in 1292, a distinction through which it ultimately served as the execution site of the celebrated highwayman “Dick Turpin” in the eighteenth century.

In being used to display a number of severed heads following the event of a peasants rebellion during the reign of Edward the First “Micklesgate Bar” was, in the late fourteenth century, further observed to have been decorated with a state sword which visiting monarch’s were requested to touch before entering the city, a convention that presumably served to signify the king’s role in the matter of judicial arbitration within it’s bounds.

Recorded to have served as a receptacle for the collection of heads amassed by “Margaret of Anjou” following the “Battle of Wakefield” during the Wars of the Roses, “Micklesgate Bar” was, in later being stormed by Parliament, subsequently observed to have represented a substantial object of criticism, a period during which Parliamentarian round-heads were inclined to condemn what was perceived to be the incident of needless barbarity.

Notoriously used to stage the execution of 22 rebels who were recorded to have hidden the evidence of York’s implication in the detail of such matters during “the Jacobite Rebellions” of the eighteenth century, an instance in which a number of heads were notably transported around Britain to disguise the true origin of their predicament, “Micklesgate Bar” was, as a result of it’s unpopularity, eventually observed to have been abandoned in favor of a somewhat less obvious location within the proximity of the city.

The similarities which occur in the evolution of “York” and that of “London” at a somewhat later date are, in this sense, quite remarkable, a circumstance creditable to the observation that the Holy Roman Emperor “Henry the fourth of Germany” controlled the investiture of the English Plantagenet monarchy during the early medieval era, a term beneath which the capital was, much as it had been throughout the Viking era, noted to have been accountable to Europe.

Recorded to have sought the excommunication of “Pope Gregory the Sixth” during his reign, a scheme which notably back-fired leading to his own exception from the church, “Henry the Fourth of Germany” was observed to have spent much of his reign attempting to win a papal reprieve , a desire which, in being quoshed with the murder of the archbishop “Thomas a Becket” by the English King “Henry the First” in 1170, was thenceforth observed to have remained unrequited through until the reign of “Henry the fifth” during the fifteenth century.

In conjunction with this series of circumstances, a defensive commercial organisation known as the “Hanseatic League”, was recorded to have been present upon British shores in the twelfth century, a mercantile network which, in being analogous to a convoy, was designated to protect both the economic interests and diplomatic privileges of Baltic Maritime Trade.

Managed by a consortium of both British and European Merchant’s Guilds, “The Hanseatic League” swiftly became affiliated with the crusades of “the Knights Templar” throughout the middle East during the medieval era, a term beneath which the organisation was notably equipped with it’s own armies, bodies of men that, in preserving order, were capable of both financing and managing foreign cities, an instance in which “Lubeck”, controlled by a man named “Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony”, was observed to have subscribed to it’s own legal system, a series of charters which were ostensibly drawn up by the“Hansa” to facilitate naval domain.

Although only a few “Hanseatic” cities enjoyed the Autonomy of Free Imperial Cities, the organisation was witnessed to have wielded influence in both “Novgorod”, shipping rye, amber resins and timber across the English channel for sale in English markets and within “London”, establishing an exchange which, in being founded when much of the capital was known as “Coldharbor”, was recorded to have been called the “Kontor”.

Subsequently responsible for founding a steelworks in the city during the early fifteenth century, the influence of the “Hanseatic League” was, in contributing to the “Wars of the Roses”, witnessed to have entered decline during the “Tudor” era, a term beneath which it was finally expelled from England during the reign of “Elizabeth the First”.

London Bridge” upon the banks of the Thames at Southwark was, in this instance, witnessed to have exacted an almost identical policy of public execution to that of York, a convention which, in allegedly commencing with the decapitation of the Scottish rebel “William Wallace” in 1305, proceeded to execute approximately 120 criminals in batches of between thirty and and forty people every month, a term beneath which “Harry Hotspur” the legendary accomplice of “Guy Fawkes” was, among others, noted to have been beheaded for implication in the gunpowder plot during the English Civil war.

Once known as “Traitor’s Gate” in distinction to a tidal inlet of the same name situated upon the grounds of the “Tower of London”, the grisly customs of London bridge were, in being perpetuated for approximately 355 years, noted to have been distinguished by the attention of carrion crows, a manner of predation which, in finding occasion to feast upon the morsels that such practice may be imagined to provide, was subsequently to prove the inspiration behind the flock of ravens presently housed within the confines of the “Tower of London”.

In retrospect it is perhaps difficult to envision exactly how much influence England’s passion for cross channel travel actually wielded throughout the era of the nation’s foundation, the custom seems to have been widely practiced for as long as Britain had been occupied by mankind, a term beneath which, whether by accident or design, the country frequently seems to have forsaken it’s native pedigree to such an extent it possesses no true identity.

Attempts to trace the origins of the Holy Roman Empire prove, in this manner, to be equally confusing, the expression appears to have been used at the very beginning of the first millennium but then, for no apparent reason to have vanished only to re-surface somewhat later in the ninth century beneath a markedly French apparel, a term beneath which it again undergoes a perceptible mutation, becoming an interest of uniquely German persuasion.

To make matters worse, for some obscure reason, the Empire is, in many accounts pertaining to the matter, noted to be of “Italian” origin, a conclusion derived from the observation that the city of Rome is quite apparently located in Italy when most of the early history relating to Roman lore is, in fact, English, an instance beneath which the boundaries of both “Septimania” and “Lombardy” in Italy were, during the first millennium, paradoxically almost uniquely sustained against Northern European interests.

I was, in this instance, contrarily compelled to observe that Latin was native to England or Northern Europe, but such an assertion is plainly absurd and would almost certainly be proven incorrect.

In conclusion the civilization to which the Romans belonged may, to all intents and purposes, fall subject to misinterpretation, a mature culture which, in leaving a vast amount of cryptic evidence in it’s wake, was, after a period of intense activity, simply swept aside by the inexorable passage of subsequent event, a term beneath which the endeavor of scholars to interpret that which yet amounts to a vast reserve of Latin information, may presently prove to be the only way to qualify such things.




A Victorian man trapped in the twenty first century

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Tom Scrow

Tom Scrow

A Victorian man trapped in the twenty first century

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